Posts Tagged ‘Web Standards’

The State of Web Fonts

Thursday, January 8th, 2009

A long time ago, Microsoft started making use of @font-face (also called web fonts) in CSS. This would have been revolutionary if not for the fact that using fonts required the designer to encode them into a weak DRM file called an EOT, which stands for Embedded OpenType. Open indeed. Things are starting to look up now.

The great thing about Microsoft trying to introduce this is that it would have ended an era of Web Safe fonts and “download this font to view my page properly” messaging before Web Safe fonts were understood. Unfortunately, no other browser bothered implementing the CSS or EOT and @font-face fell into obscurity for many years, forcing web designers to use images of text. EOT’s major flaw was that it pandered to font makers and left web designers jumping through hoops to create font files.

Microsoft apparently has strong corporate ties to certain Font Industry big-wigs, and they didn’t want to upset them. Better to make life hard for your developers than help font makers come up with workable solutions for licensing web fonts (like hosting font files and checking the HTTP_REFERER for the correct domain before allowing access to the font file, which seems as good as the weak DRM of EOT files). When you are the most commonly used browser, I guess you can do stuff like that and still have your CEO chant, “Developers! Developers! Developers!” The problem is that Microsoft didn’t anticipate empowering font creation software like FontStruct that lets mere mortals create fonts under Creative Commons licenses. Frankly, it’s unfair to force me to put DRM on stuff I create if I don’t want it.

Eventually, some good people created sIFR, which allowed designers to (with great effort) cobble together a Flash file that embedded a font. Adding some JavaScript code to the page allowed designers to add fonts in a more accessible, user-friendly manner than simply using images of text. While sIFR had some problems (for example, links in headings were buggy and the text wouldn’t resize with the browser), it was a breath of fresh air. Suddenly, it was only a little work to have nice typographic options for limited use in headers and the like.

Recently, Apple (in the form of WebKit) and Opera have brought back the @font-face. Luckily, Apple and Opera didn’t bend over for the Font Industry. They boldly allowed support of plain-old TrueType fonts. With half of the major rendering engines supporting easy web fonts (and Firefox support on the way), I decided to give EOT another shot. That would allow me to have four out of five browsers (that I support) rendering my fonts out-of-the-box with sIFR as a worse-case fallback.

The results were mixed. Using @font-face is progressive enhancement with CSS and using sIFR is progressive enhancement with JavaScript and Flash. To start, I went through the lengthy and buggy trial and error process of creating an EOT with WEFT. After getting that worked out, I added the following to my screen stylesheet:

@font-face {
	font-family: "MyFont Sans";
	src: url("../media/myfont_sans.ttf") format("truetype");
@font-face {
	font-family: "MyFont Sans IE";
	font-style: normal;
	font-weight: normal;
	src: url("../media/MYFONTS0.eot");

I could then set a font by specifying font-family: MyFont Sans, MyFont Sans IE, sans-serif;. In Safari, Opera, and Internet Explorer, my site used a custom font. Other browsers fell back so a system chosen sans serif font if the font MyFont Sans was not installed on the system. That gets us half way there.

The next step is to create the sIFR and load it only if it is needed.

var MYSITE = {
	sifr: true,
	init: function() {
		if(window.getComputedStyle) {
			var ff = document.defaultView.getComputedStyle(h,null).getPropertyValue('font-family');
			switch(ff.toLowerCase()) {
				case 'myfont sans':
				case '"myfont sans"':
				case "'myfont sans'":
					MYSITE.sifr = false;
		} else {
			MYSITE.sifr = false;
		if(MYSITE.sifr) {
		return true;
	setSifr: function() {
		// Code enabling sIFR
if(window.addEventListener) {
	window.addEventListener('load', MYSITE.init, false);
} else if(window.attachEvent) {
	window.attachEvent('onload', MYSITE.init);
} else {
	window.onload = MYSITE.init;

The script runs after the page loads. Checking for window.getComputedStyle ensures that any standards compliant browser that supports web fonts will not get sIFR, since the browser will report that it is using MyFont Sans. Firefox, if I remember correctly, reports a list of fonts, but it ends up in the result of Firefox getting sIFR. Once Firefox has web fonts support, this script will need to be reevaluated. If the browser doesn’t support getComputedStyle, the browser is (probably) Internet Explorer, which supports web fonts. So, we can turn sIFR off.

Finally, any browser that needs sIFR will execute MYSITE.setSifr();, adding the custom fonts to the page.

This should provide custom font support in most major browsers. The only caveat is that a suitable fallback should be chosen (one that looks similar to the @font-face font, rather than sans-serif mentioned above), as browsers without Flash or without JavaScript will see the fallback font if the browser doesn’t support web fonts.

Since we have a suitable fallback with sIFR when web fonts aren’t available to the browser, there is a good enough methodology for implementing custom typography on live sites that don’t support web fonts. Until Firefox releases support for web fonts, it may be too much trouble to implement. However, in the spirit of progressive enhancement, one could skip the sIFR step and simply allow the installed system font fallback, as pixel-perfect cross browser support is turning into an obsolete, undesirable practice and progressive enhancement is becoming common place.

The final rub is Microsoft’s persistence in supporting EOT and not TrueType or OpenType fonts. While it is possible to get web fonts in Internet Explorer, it is a royal pain to create EOT files. If it’s too much effort, using sIFR or keeping the tenants of progressive enhancement with CSS may be a workable solution.

So, it seems web fonts have almost come of age. Once Firefox supports @font-face, web fonts can be used on a wide scale. While you may not want to jump on the bandwagon yet, it is definitely time to start looking into web fonts.

How To Do Modern Web Design

Friday, January 12th, 2007

I’ve been trying to figure out the best way to explain how to do modern, semantic, standards compliant web design. I’ve been trying to make the point to my current protege that one should first look at a website like a term paper and move on from there. I’ve formulated a method now that I’d like to outline.

I once described how I see web design as a left brain plus right brain task. However, a new A List Apart article called Grok Web Standards breaks it down even more, suggesting that a web designer must think like a writer, artist, and engineer. The article inspired me to write the steps I think web designers should take to making a site.

I must say now that I seriously doubt anyone will ever work this way. It relies on the idea that content is given to the designer first. Rarely, if ever, will a client give you content without seeing a design. This is unfortunate because the goal of a website is to communicate a point. Looking pretty is the icing. You won’t be able to bake a cake without letting the client taste the icing first until you have a very good reputation. However, I hope my steps are written well enough that, if need be, designs can be done first.

How To Do Modern Web Design

  1. Understand Your Content

    Content is king. Before you touch an editor, read your content and understand it. Once you understand what you want to present, it becomes easier to mark up and will give you ideas on how you want to present the content to the user. Make a mental outline of what is in the content to help make decisions. To be clear, content does not just mean the text on the page. Content includes navigation and footer information as well as regular page content and images.

  2. Format Your Content

    The first goal of a site (web apps excluded) should be to present a message in a clear manner. The best way to do this is to make sure your markup is structured and semantic. I like to think of it as manually marking up a term paper or essay. Term papers must be clearly arranged and defined in logical sections. Lists should be presented as lists, paragraphs as paragraphs, and headings as headings.

    Every designer should have some boilerplate to work with. That is, having a very simple HTML template with basic elements (e.g. DOCTYPE, head, title, body, and any other basic elements you usually work with) will save you a few minutes up front and allow you to get down to business. Smultron, for example, has this built in. If you don’t, write a basic, empty HTML document. Don’t include stylesheets yet.

    To qualify the previous paragraph, boilerplate is only really needed if you want to validate as you go. If you trust your ability to write valid disembodied markup, just bang out the markup in a text editor without the rest of the code. It’s how I’m writing this post since it’s going to be injected into a design that has the rest of the code. In the end, you might save some time by not using boilerplate (e.g. if you have tons of pages that will need extra elements inserted during step four below). For the beginners, though, understanding the document structure will be more useful than the time saved by skipping out on it.

    Your task is to turn your content into something logical, legible, and semantic. Use your understanding of the content to create a document. Based on your mental outline, use headings with the correct level (typically the document title should be the first level heading, for example), lists, paragraphs, blockquotes, tables for tabulated data. Give emphasis, citations, and hyperlinks. Front load your lists if you need to. Don’t use divisions, fonts, or styles. Do rely on the browser’s built in formatting. Default styles are well thought out by the browser maker. You just want to make sure your content makes sense. Yes, it looks boring, but it also looks clean. When you view your document in a browser with no stylesheets, it should make sense when you try to read it.

  3. Design For Your Content

    By now, you should be pretty intimate with the content. You should have a clear idea about what the content is about. This will allow you to create a design that helps present that content in a truthful manner. Take what you know about your content and mockup something that can present it well. I suggest using Photoshop to work on mockups at this point. This will keep you from having to write a big stylesheet when you don’t know if you need it.

    Also, focus on usability. People that come to this site have no knowledge of how you intended them to use it. They have certain knowledge about the way the web usually works. It’s best to take that into consideration. If you break from tradition, you need to make it obvious how you intend the user to interact with the site.

    After you are certain that the content is accurately represented and the design is usable, then worry about aesthetics.

    Typically, clients will want to approve a design. So, make a good composite to show off. You may even want to do a little HTML and drop a full-sized composite into a browser so the client can get a feel of how it would look.

    If it turns out that you have to do this step first, you should have an idea about what sort of content the client wants to be on his site. You may have to use your imagination a little more. Don’t worry, though. This is where most people have to start, and I believe starting here can still produce a great site, even if it isn’t the most ideal place to start.

  4. Start Merging Content and Design

    Open your basic document in FireFox, Opera, or Safari. Since these browsers basically agree with one another, this will help you start with a standards compliant site. Now is when you want to start working on your stylesheets.

    Start coding your stylesheet based on what you already have. Before, people misused tables to create designs. Using web standards, people tend to get div diarrhea. Instead of using elements that exist, people put divs around everything whether they need it or not. So, I suggest making creative use of headings, navigation lists, and paragraphs to trim down your stylesheet as much as possible.

    The best place to start is by throwing out some of the default formatting. I know I just said it was well thought out. It still is. It just isn’t well thought out for your design.

    The first part of my main stylesheet clears margins, paddings, and borders (i.e. *{margin:0px; border:0px; padding:0px;}). From there, it’s the designers job to figure out the best proximity. It also forces the designer to take a better look at default behavior and hopefully start coding it out (or coding it in) to have well thought out alignment and contrast, which makes cross-browser compatibility a little easier to achieve.

    As you go, you will probably find that you need a div here and there to help represent a certain aspect of your design. For example, I like my designs centered on the page. In HTML 4, the best way to do this is a div that has margin: auto wrapped around all the content (though in real XHTML, the html and body elements can be used to achieve the same ends with no extra markup).

    So, add extra divs when you absolutely need them, and make sure to either code in or code out default styles. Be creative, though. It’s your job. Usually the easiest solution is not the best.

  5. Make Sure It Is Accessible

    A pretty design is useless if it isn’t a good design. Good designs are accessible to the most number of people possible. So, audit your site and make sure there aren’t any serious accessibility problems. Make sure images have meaningful alt tags, form elements have labels, etc. Don’t forget niceties like skip to content links. This section really deserves an article of its own. So, I won’t go into much detail.

    Since I’m on a Mac, I’ve familiarized myself with browsing web sites with VoiceOver. While it isn’t as good as the other web screen readers, it helps me get an understanding of what the page might be like. I highly suggest this (or some similar testing) be part of the audit if you have access.

  6. Debug for Internet Explorer

    Internet Explorer 7 was supposed to bring in a new age of standards compatibility. It didn’t. Even if it did, use of Internet Explorer 6 is still rampant. In the old days, stylesheet hacks were the way to account for differences in browser rendering (fighting bugs with bugs). Now, though, Internet Explorer has a proprietary concept called conditional comments.

    This is the first proprietary HTML concept Microsoft has created that is worth a damn. Conditional comments allows the designer to hide or show page content in Internet Explorer based on variables such as browser name or browser version. So, we create a conditional comment to show our Internet Explorer bug fix stylesheet only to Internet Explorer (e.g. <!--[if lte IE 6.0]> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="ie_fixes.css"> <![endif]-->). No hacks needed.

    Work in Internet Explorer to clear up any layout issues by overwriting your real stylesheet values. So, if you had a fieldset{border: 1px dotted gray;} in your real styesheet, which causes weird results in Internet Explorer, you can change it by adding fieldset{border: 1px solid gray;} in your Internet Explorer stylesheet. Don’t get bent out of shape if things aren’t one-for-one the same. Sometimes a reasonable likeness is as good as you can get.

  7. Show It To The Client

    By now you have a semantic document custom tailored to your client’s content that is usable, accessible, and hopefully aesthetically pleasing. You can now show it to the client. Since you had the forethought to use web standards, you can make changes to every page at once via the few stylesheets you created. It will save you time and your client money. Since the code is semantic, search engines can better understand the content and index it properly, which may lead to increased revenue for your client. Everyone wins.

The Great MIME-Type Swindle

Sunday, November 19th, 2006

It’s a really old subject, but I haven’t said my piece on the XHTML 1.0 versus HTML 4.01 debate. While commenting on Roger Johansson’s blog, 456 Berea Street, I said a little bit about what I think. I figured I ought to go ahead and say my fill.

XHTML was supposed to be the death of HTML. HTML 4.01, until recently, was supposed to be the last iteration of HTML. I think XHTML is great. It allows the designer to implement bits of XML, should he want to. It also is very strict, requiring proper syntax where HTML didn’t. If there is something wrong with the code, the page should not render at all. This makes good syntax coding a requirement rather than a suggestion. However, the current implementation of most of the XHTML pages I know of is ideologically broken. The rest don’t work on Internet Explorer.

The comments I made assumed a little foreknowledge but basically say what I want to say here. However, I’ll go ahead and lay out my full argument here.

In 2000 when XHTML 1.0 was introduced, there was a need for backward compatibility since most browsers could not render real XHTML. That is, browsers were built to render HTML served as text/html. Sending XHTML as XML resulted in, I assume, an interpreted XML tree. So that adoption of XHTML would occur, it needed to work in browsers. So, the XHTML recommendation had guidelines in place of how to make XHTML work on HTML browsers. This wasn’t backward compatibility so much as a hack. It didn’t allow for any of the benefits of XHTML, though it succeeded in making pages written with XHTML syntax render on old browsers. So, the mime-type is the modern equivalent of DOCTYPE triggering quirksmode (which the Web Hypertext Application Technology Work Group embrace).

As far as hacks go, it worked. Like all transitional solutions, it was supposed to be dropped as browser support for XHTML grew. The problem is that Internet Explorer never supported it (even in version 7) and people opted to continue to send HTML-XHTML. Further, it seems, many people don’t realize that real XHTML requires the correct application/xhtml+xml mime-type being sent. This is something that must be set up on the server, as text/html is the default mime-type for sending .html documents on every web server I know of.

When XHTML is sent as text/html, it behaves differently than if it is sent correctly. XHTML sent as HTML is treated as tag soup, which means any optimized, light weight XML parsers aren’t used. Tag Soup XHTML doesn’t require strict use of CDATA elements and improper syntax doesn’t stop rendering of the page. The null closing tags are treated as broken attributes. While it still works, XHTML is ideologically broken if it is sent as text/html. People who suggest we ought to use XHTML to guarantee that fledgling designers pick up XHTML (which would require strict syntax) are suggesting that we use a broken implementation to uphold an ideal that is at odds with broken implementations (ignoring that an unforgiving markup language would cause most designers to give up out of irritation). It is hypocritical.

So, I see two choices that are ideologically sound. The first is to use XHTML and send it as application/xhtml+xml, Internet Explorer be damned. However, this is really not a good choice for most. Some would suggest content negotiation, but this is still a hack that requires a lot of extra thinking and planning (albeit a better one than sending XHTML as HTML). The second is to only use XHTML in specific instances where compatibility can be guaranteed.

Let me elaborate on the second choice. HTML 4.01 is a web standard. Anyone in the web standards group that always advocates XHTML over HTML on grounds that XHTML is better suited for use than HTML doesn’t understand what tools are for. HTML with a strict DOCTYPE can be validated, written semantically, and obsessed over as much as XHTML. HTML just allows the web designer to make the choice (and good designers will obsess over their markup no matter what).

HTML and XHTML are tools to solve a problem. Just like a screwdriver won’t help when a hammer is needed, XHTML is no good when HTML is needed. I’ll be specific. On pages where free-form user input is allowed, the potential for non-designers (and designers, too, for that matter) to enter bad markup is huge. In a real XHTML page, the user could easily break a page, preventing rendering. When using HTML, the page may no longer validate, but it will still render. In instances such as these HTML is a better tool than XHTML.

Web applications, however, are a different story. System requirements can be specified as they are on traditional applications (e.g. a browser that supports XHTML can be required). This means that no hacks need to be used. Since web applications generally use form elements to display and edit data, concerns over user input are drastically reduced. Most of the time, discreet data is required rather than free-flow data that one might find on, say, a comments page. So, data can be more accurately validated. When that data is inserted into an XHTML page, it’s far less likely to break the page. On a syntactical level, XHTML meshes well with programming languages. That is, the code must live up to certain standards. XHTML would help tie the front end to the back end. XHTML is a perfect tool for web applications.

So, ignoring all the common arguments about the dangers of using XHTML, the ideology of XHTML is broken if the page works in Internet Explorer 7 or below. Advocating the use of a broken technology is hypocritical when well written HTML 4.01 with a strict DOCTYPE is better suited for normal web usage. However, XHTML has a defined and useful place on the World Wide Web.

If you want another opinion, Maciej Stachowiak of Apple’s WebKit / Safari project weighs in with pretty much the same opinions I have.

Update: The Lachlan Hunt pointed out that I screwed up the XHTML MIME-type. I fixed the error.

Web Standards Still Matter

Wednesday, September 20th, 2006

I want to do a podcast. If you are on my site and you look at the navigation bar, you’ll see a heading for it. I just haven’t had the time yet, and I’ve been questioning my original intent. Now, I don’t question it as much.

When I start thinking about how I need a head set to record the podcasts, I get all antsy. I want to make it, but I still need to come up with several weeks worth of topics. I know it’s going to be a web design podcast for hobbyists, or something like that. I couldn’t decide, however, if I should try to keep up with the bleeding edge concepts, like microformats, or continue to advocate old favorites web standards, accessibility, unobtrusive JavaScript, and the rest.

As I was walking to work Monday, I decided that there was no reason not to make a podcast that dealt with the old favorites. Web standards (and the rest) are still not widely used. I shouldn’t be dissuaded by the fact that, among the web design intelligentsia, web standards is becoming a less of a topic of discussion and more a way of life. The people that I hear that talk about this sort of thing are already living it and have moved on to the next big thing. Someone (other than the Web Standards Project, I guess) needs to keep talking about it for the newbies and late adopters.

Again, today, I was pondering this on the way to work. After sitting down at my desk and opening one of my news feeds, I saw two articles that pressed the fact people need to keep talking about web standards. Why Standards Still Matter, which appeared on Vitamin, was written by Roger Johansson (and plugged on his website) offered some helpful hints on how to keep the discussion flowing.

Robert Nyman also threw in a few words that, once again, summed up the need to use and advocate standards.

These two articles have reinforced my thoughts on where I want to head with my podcast and are worth a read if you care anything about web design.